chance & necessity | random & planned | chaos & order | freedom & determinism
The phrase ‘by chance’ refers to an event/result happening without compulsion or determination – we say the situation/result ‘did not have to be that way’.
The phrase ‘of necessity’ refers to an event/result happening according to compulsion or law – we say the situation/result ‘had to be that way’.
So. Â The universe or ‘the world’ or ‘things’ or ‘stuff’… Chance or necessity?
Interestingly, both answers can be used to argue for some form of theism.