(I believe this analogy – my version of it below – belongs to Polkinghorne, but I’m not sure)
explain the boiling kettle!
Explanation A: Well, the heat from the element is transferred to the metal of the kettle, which transfers to the water, which changes the chemical state of the water, which we call boiling, at which liquid gives rise to vapor.Â The bubbling, by the way, is utterly random!
Explanation B: I wanted a cup of tea.
Both explanations are perfectly true, and in absolute harmony with one another.Â In other words, robust scientific descriptions do not cancel out teleological or intention-based ones.